|River System and Water Resources|
The district, in spite of its apparent uniformity of aspect, it divided topographically into several distinct tract namely, the low valley of the Ghaghra in the south, extending from that river to its tributary, the Kuwana; the central upland, between the latter river and the rapti; and the low and ill-drained paddy belt between the Rapti and the Nepal boundary.
River System and Water Resources
The Ghaghra River
River Ghaghra is formed by the combined waters of Kauriyala, Girwa, Chauka and other streams, which have their origin in the mountains of Kumaun and Nepal. The Ghaghra forms the southern boundary of the district, from its entry opposite the sacred town of Ayodhya, where for a short distance it is usually known as the Saryu, as far as Belghat on the border of Gorakhpur. The river flows continually shifting cannel within a broad sandy bed. During the rains it carries as immense volume of water, but in dry weather it shrinks to small dimensions.
The river has a constant tendency to change its course during the floods, and in this manner large tracts of land from time to time are transferred either to the northern or southern banks, rendering the total area of the district subject to incessant variation. These changes have occasionally been accompanied by the formation of large islands and deep stream rule prevails, the constant shifting of the jurisdiction of such lands from one district to another results in considerable inconvenience..
Tributaries of the Ghaghra
The Ghaghra receives directly hardly any of the drainage of the district, as exception the immediate neighborhood of its bands, all the surplus water is intercepted by its affiance. Occasionally the river overflows its banks and submerges the adjoining lowlands, with the result the water is actually transferred from the river to the Manwar or Kuwana. The latter, in its lower reaches near Bhanpur, is joined with the Ghaghra by cross channel and from that point onwards it acts as an arm of the Ghaghra.
The Kuwana River
The Kuwana also known as Kuano, rises in the low ground in the east of Bahraich district and thence flows through the centre of Gonda. It first touches the district in the stream west of Rasulpur. It then separates the Basti east pargana from Basti West, Nagar West, Nagar East and after passing through Mahuli West and Mahuli East leaves the district in the south-Easter corner, at short distance from its junction with the Ghaghra in Gorakhpur.
Tributaries of The Kuwana
It has several tributaries, the important ones being Rawai, Manwar and Katnehia. sees in the :
The rawai:- The Rawai joins the Kuwana on the right bank and is a small stream which rises in the north of Amorha and thence flows between steep and sandy banks frequently infected with reh, through the western half of paragana Basti for a short distance and ultimately joins the Kawana.
The Manwar:- The Manwar Manorama, rises in Gonda and flows in an easterly direction along the edge of Sikri forest to the district boundary. For a short distance it separates the latter district from Gonda and is then joined by the Chamnai, a small and sluggish stream. after the junction the Manwar bents to the south-east and flows through the centre of pargana Amorha, on the eastern boundary of which it receives a small tributary called Ramrekha on its right bank. It then passes through the two paraganas of Nagar East and Nagar West and joins the Kawana in Lalganj in Mahuli West.
The Kathnaya:-The only tributary of any importance that is received by the Kuwana on its left bank is the Katnehia, which rises in the swamps to the north of Basti East and flows in the south easterly direction along the borders of the Nagar East, where it units with the Garehia, a similar stream which has its origin in the south of Rasulpur. Their combined water continues in a south easterly direction along the borders of Nagar East and Mahuli West parganas, then turning south to join the Kuwana at Mukhlishpur in Mahuli East.